The incredible story of diving standards

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Por Maria Lazarte
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We could give you a million reasons why standards are key for the tourism industry, but sometimes all you need is one story to make it real. So here is the tale of one man, a small company, and a revolutionary standard that transformed one of the largest tourism activities worldwide: diving.

Our story begins in Vienna, Austria. The small land-locked country has had a firm place in diving history since Austrian diving pioneer Hans Hass (who sadly passed away in June 2013) inspired a generation to get involved in what was then a new activity – recreational diving.

In 1994, Martin Denison, an Austrian diving expert of British origin, set up his own franchise business in Austria using an American qualification system to train divers and instructors. The tiny company flourished… until a new sports law required that teachers have a license issued by local authorities on the advice of the relevant national federations. This meant that Austrians trained in the American system would no longer be able to teach diving, including those in Martin’s company.


Martin turned to Austrian Standards (AS) for help, the ISO member for the country. Most standards at that time targeted products, and diving would become one of the first to focus on a service. AS rallied together the different stakeholders in the industry and developed a national standard for diver and instructor training that allowed certification. For Martin this meant that, even if he used the American training system, as long as he complied with the requirements in the new national standards, instructors would be recognized by local authorities.

Yet this was only the tip of the iceberg and diving standards were soon to become one of the great success stories of standardization in the services sector.

The Austrian standards had barely been completed when the European Underwater Federation decided to introduce common European rules for diver and instructor training. Instead of reinventing the wheel, they approached the European standards body CEN, who turned to the published Austrian standards as a starting point. The new working group developing these standards became the largest in the European standardization community, with around 35 representatives from 17 countries.

Soon, countries outside Europe started to show interest and the standards were adopted by ISO, who maintains a cooperation agreement with CEN to avoid unnecessary duplication of work. Over the past 15 years, the standards have found wide acceptance in diving schools around the world.

Take Greece for example. There was a time when, out of thousands of kilometres of shoreline, only a tiny stretch of about 160 km was open to divers. But the country was among the early adopters of the standards, and made certification of training and diving centres compulsory. Reassured by the impact this would have on the safety of the industry, diving is now allowed almost everywhere in the country, bringing huge benefits to the tourism industry.

Similarly, when Egypt made ISO 24803 for recreational scuba diving service providers compulsory, over 600 diving centres started to be audited on a yearly basis. After just two years, Egypt reported a 24 % decrease in the number of diving accidents.

So next time you go on holiday, look out for diving standards ISO 24801-X, ISO 24802-X and ISO 24803, and snorkeling standards ISO 13289 and ISO 13970. They are just one example, among many, of how standards make an impact on our lives.



Martin Denison
Martin Denison
Managing Director
Scuba Schools GmbH

Scuba Schools, Tauchausbildung GmbH is registered in Vienna and specializes in training recreational divers and diving instructors and in producing training materials.

Maria Lazarte
Maria Lazarte

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