This International Standard specifies the frame structures, the elements of procedures, the classes of procedures, the content
and format of the general purpose Exchange Identification (XID) frame, and a means for resolution/negotiation of a data link
layer address in switched environments for data communication systems using bit-oriented high-level data link control
NOTE The use of the phrase "bit-oriented", referring to the HDLC control procedures, pertains to the allocation of a non-integral number
of bits to various subfields used for HDLC control purposes. However, the frame as an entirety may be constructed from octet-oriented units
(e.g., start-stop mode) for transmission purposes.
The frame structure portion defines the relative positions of the various components of the basic frame format and the nonbasic
frame format. The mechanisms used to achieve bit pattern independence (transparency), where and when required, within
the frame are also defined. In addition, three frame checking sequences (FCS) are specified; the rules for address field
extension are defined; and the addressing conventions available are described.
The elements of procedures portion specifies elements of data link control procedures for synchronous or start/stop, codetransparent
data transmission using independent frame numbering in both directions.
These HDLC elements of procedures are defined specifically in terms of the actions that occur on receipt of commands at a
secondary station, a tributary station, a peer station, or a combined station.
This International Standard is intended to cover a wide range of applications; for example one-way, two-way alternate or twoway
simultaneous data communication between data stations which are usually buffered, including operations on different
types of data circuits; for example multipoint/point-to-point, duplex/half-duplex, switched/non-switched, synchronous/startstop,
The defined elements of procedures are to be considered as a common basis for establishing different types of data link control
procedures. This International Standard does not define any single system and should not be regarded as a specification for a
data communication system. Not all of the commands or responses are required for any particular system implementation.
The classes of procedures portion describes the HDLC unbalanced classes of procedures, the HDLC balanced class of
procedures, and the HDLC connectionless classes of procedures for synchronous or start/stop data transmission.
For the unbalanced classes, the data link consists of a primary station plus one or more secondary stations and operates in
either the normal response mode or the asynchronous response mode in a point-to-point or multipoint configuration. For the
balanced class, the data link consists of two combined stations and operates in the asynchronous balanced mode in a point-topoint
configuration. For the unbalanced connectionless class, the data link consists of a control station plus one or more
tributary stations and operates in the unbalanced connectionless-mode in a point-to-point or multipoint configuration. For the
balanced connectionless class, the data link consists of two peer stations and operates in the balanced connectionless-mode in a
point-to-point configuration. In each class, a basic repertoire of commands and responses is defined, but the capability of the
data link may be modified by the use of optional functions.
Balanced operation is intended for use in circumstances which require equal control at either end of the data link. Operational
requirements are covered in accordance with the overall HDLC architecture.
The content and format of the Exchange Identification (XID) frame portion builds on the fact that the principal use of the XID
frame is to exchange data link information between two or more HDLC stations. For the purpose of this International Standard,
2 © ISO/IEC 2002 ? All rights reserved
data link information shall include any and all essential operational characteristics such as identification, authentication and/or
selection of optional functions and facilities concerning each station. This International Standard defines a single-exchange
negotiation procedure for establishing operational characteristics when either one or more stations are capable of providing
This International Standard provides a means for exchanging the necessary information to establish, at a minimum, a data link
connection between two correspondents wishing to communicate. It describes a general purpose XID frame information field
content and format for that purpose.
It defines encoding for information related to the basic HDLC standards only. Mechanisms are provided to permit the general
purpose XID frame information field to be used to negotiate private parameters in a single XID exchange simultaneously with
negotiation of the defined basic parameters.
This International Standard does not limit or restrict the use of the XID frame information field from defining other standard
formats for use in specific applications.
The following are examples of potential uses of the XID command/response frame interchange:
a) Identification of the calling and called stations when using circuit switched networks (including switched network backup
b) Identification of stations operating on non-switched networks requiring identification at start-up.
c) The XID command frame with an individual, group or all-station address may be used to solicit XID response frame(s)
from other station(s) on the data link, prior to or following data link establishment.
d) Negotiation of the Frame Check Sequence (FCS) to be used for subsequent information interchange, by stations that
support both 16-bit FCS and 32-bit FCS capabilities.
e) Convey higher layer information that may be required prior to data link establishment.
f) Transmission of an XID response frame at any respond opportunity to request an XID exchange to modify some of the
operational parameters (for example, window size) following data link establishment.
g) Negotiation of the number of protected bits in the frame when an Unnumbered Information with Header check (UIH)
frame is used.
The means for resolution/negotiation of a data link layer address in switched environments portion is applicable to data stations
employing HDLC balanced classes of procedures which provide the XID command/response capability with the two specific
parameter fields, identified below. It is used to select a pair of operational link addresses when preassigned, system designated
addresses are not known on an a priori basis; e.g., switched circuited data links. Additional XID frame functions (including the
exchange of operational parameters, command/response support, higher layer information, etc.) may be accomplished in
conjunction with data link layer address determination or following address determination, with additional XID frame
NOTE Address resolution procedures for situations where the remote DTE does not support XID frames, the "all-station"
address, or complete address support capabilities as defined in clause 8 below are not within the scope of this International
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